Secretion Management

The normally closed respiratory system can be considered as “open” due to the tracheostomy tube, allowing air to escape from the tube.  Airflow is redirected and bypasses the upper airway, which normally warms and filters the air.  The air is typically drier and cooler when moving through a tracheostomy tube, which can lead to secretion retention.  The lack of airflow through the upper airway also results in reduced sensation in that area.  If the individual does not feel the secretions in the airway, secretions build up and stagnate.  A general reduction in swallowing of secretions leads to muscle disuse which furthers escalates the cycle of impaired secretion management.  The tracheostomy tube is also a foreign object, and the body responds by producing more secretions.   

The cough reflex is also impaired due to the open tracheostomy tube and lack of airflow through the upper airway.  The cough reflex is vital in mobilizing secretions and removal of foreign material from the airway as a protective mechanism.  Subglottic pressure has been measured as 0cmH20 in individuals with an open tracheostomy (Gross, R).  Subglottic pressure is required to produce an effective cough.  Furthermore, individuals with tracheostomy may also have retained secretions and poor coughing due to muscle weakness and general immobility.  Finally, patients may be on fluid restrictions which can further thicken secretions.  All of these can contribute to the need to provide assistance in secretion management for individuals with tracheostomy.  

The mobilization of secretions is important in caring for individuals with tracheostomy.  Mobilizing secretions requires secretion removal, humidification, hydration, and physical mobilization of the individual.  Secretion removal is accomplished mainly by suctioning, either through an open or closed-circuit technique.  Humidification is a standard of care for patients with tracheostomy to help thin secretions and reduce the likelihood of mucous plugs.  Suctioning and humidification are vital in proper care, but are ways to deal with the symptoms that occur from the effects of the tracheostomy, instead of treating the root cause of secretion issues.  

Since the main cause of secretion management issues is the lack of airflow and open tracheostomy system, the solution to fighting the cycle of secretions is to provide airflow to the upper airway by deflating the cuff and providing a closed respiratory system.  A closed system is achieved by occlusion of the tracheostomy by digital occlusion, a bias-closed position speaking valve (Passy-Muir Valve) or with capping.  Cuff deflation and Passy-Muir and capping trials must be assessed on a patient by patient basis as not all individuals can tolerate.  Cough techniques and expiratory muscle strength training can then take place in order to rehabilitate weakened muscles.  

SERVICES

Suctioning

Tracheal suctioning is a standard of care for patients with tracheostomy to maintain a patent airway and avoid tracheostomy tube blockages. Find evidenced based practice guidelines here.

Humidification and Hydration

A tracheostomy tubes bypasses the natural humificiation and filtration system. Learn about different humidification methods and procedures.

Cuff Deflation

Cuff deflation allows for some airflow through the upper airway. Learn more about cuff deflation, for secretion management.

Occlusion of the Tracheostomy Tube

Occlusion of the tracheostomy tube allows for increased airflow and re-establishes a closed system to produce a functional cough and improve secretion management.

Expiratory Muscle Strength Training

Expiratory muscle strength training can improve cough strength and swallowing to improve secretion management.

Early Mobilization

Review of the literature of early mobilization for patients with tracheostomy and mechanical ventilation.

Cough Techniques

Coughing is an important defense mechanism to remove irritants, pollutants, bacteria or any foreign objects (food, liquids, secretions) that have entered the airway. Aspiration is the term when material enters below the vocal folds.

Scroll to Top

join trach courses

Subscribe now